In the food and agriculture industries, most biotech developers have approached crop modification with a specific goal in mind: increasing crop yield. Most focus has been on traits that confer agricultural benefits like herbicide tolerance and insect or disease resistance that are upstream to the consumer. Lux Research has identified an emerging trend wherein companies are now targeting developing traits at the point of the consumer with direct consumer-facing benefits rather than agronomic farmer-facing benefits. Over the last few years, several firms have developed these traits, including a variety of pink pineapple developed by Del Monte, a variety of gluten-reduced wheat developed by Calyxt, and non-browning apples developed by Okanagan Specialty Fruits. We expect to see more crops with consumer-facing benefits to appear in the coming years, as developers aim to capitalize on consumer-driven trends and needs. Continue reading
Late last month, Deutsche Telekom (DT) made a big announcement: the company has rolled out NarrowBand-IoT (NB-IoT) networks across Europe. Digging into the details, DT told us that it now has NB-IoT capability in eight countries, all across Europe: Germany, the Netherlands, Greece, Poland, Hungary, Austria, Slovakia, and Croatia. Other key details in the announcement are that ista is a partner of DT, offering the “first NB-IoT smart building solutions,” and that the latter has also developed a “Prototyping Hub” to develop solutions for different industry segments. Continue reading
Last week, San Francisco-based Bolt Threads unveiled its first product for customers: a necktie made from its synthetic spider silk fiber. Bolt Threads’ product launch includes 50 limited edition neckties that consumers can purchase through a lottery hosted on the company website. Selected participants will have the opportunity to buy the necktie for $314.15 on March 14.
Bolt Threads uses genetically engineered yeast to produce synthetic spider silk proteins via fermentation. After harvesting, purifying, and drying the protein to a powder, Bolt Threads wet-spins it into a yarn-like fiber. For its necktie, Bolt Threads weaves the yarn into a chevron pattern representing the molecular structure of the spider silk proteins. The company recently built a new 11,000 ft2 fiber spinning facility to scale up its manufacturing capacity. Continue reading
Early March gave us two announcements pertaining to bio-based additives in car tires: American Process (API) announced a joint development agreement (JDA) with Birla Carbon to combine nanocellulose and carbon black in tires; and Amyris announced that Sumitomo Rubber has adopted the liquid farnesene rubber (LFR) developed with Kuraray for Dunlop-branded Winter Maxx 02 tires. Because downstream application development is one of the biggest challenges for new bio-based materials (see the report “Navigating the Web of Bio-based Performance Materials” [client registration required]), we chose to evaluate how well the materials fit the announced applications: Continue reading
Three composite additive manufacturing companies have established themselves as the leaders in continuous fiber-reinforced composite 3D printing. Although there is an entire ecosystem of fiber-reinforced composite 3D printing companies and printable materials, only Continuous Composites, Markforged, and Arevo have demonstrated technologies that incorporate continuous fiber into each layer of a printed part, making them the startup technology leaders driving widespread adoption of automated chopped and continuous fiber-reinforced part production without large-scale capital expenditure.
Multiple interviews with founders and executives at each company have resulted in composite scores from 1 to 5 for business execution, technology value, and maturity as shown in the below graphic. All three companies were founded in 2013, have raised angel or venture funding, and have numerous patent applications filed, with all three having at least one U.S. patent granted.
Material and printing technology differences result in unique value propositions for each company:
- Continuous Composites uses fast UV light-curing thermosets reinforced with any combination of continuous fibers including fiberglass, carbon fiber, Kevlar fiber, copper wire, or fiber optic strands on a five-axis gantry system. The company’s process can print single or multiple tows simultaneously. The multimaterial capabilities allows part production with integrated circuitry for sensing, data transfer, and/or resistive heating functionality. The fast-curing materials can be printed into free space without product supports, and the use of thermosets does not inhibit post-processing machining steps. Continuous Composites continues to develop its technology for industry applications, specifically aerospace, and has recently been granted a key patent having the earliest priority date of patents granted to the three companies discussed here, which will enable its licensing business model for 2017.
- Markforged uses a nylon or chopped carbon fiber-reinforced nylon that can be reinforced with fiberglass, carbon fiber, or Kevlar fiber on a three-axis gantry system. The company includes cloud-based software that gives users multiple fiber placement options within each part layer, and can incorporate laser micrometer data (on its top printer model only) to monitor dimensional accuracy. The extensive software control combined with the mid-grade engineering thermoplastic makes for an ideal alternative to machined metal for manufacturing tooling applications. Markforged has three printers available with continuous fiber-reinforcement, all with sub-six figure price points. The company has also entered into a second 3D printing category with the recent announcement of a metal 3D printer.
- Arevo uses high-performance engineering thermoplastics such as polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and polyetherketoneketone (PEKK) reinforced with chopped carbon fiber and/or continuous carbon fiber using a six-axis robotic arm. Using PEEK and PEKK allows for structural high temperature applications up to 400°C, and the additional degrees of freedom via the robotic arm allows printing onto complex surfaces. The company combines this with a custom finite element analysis (FEA) software that provides toolpath optimization and strength analysis to determine fiber orientation and material usage in order to maximize a part’s strength-to-weight ratio. Arevo is developing its continuous fiber-reinforcement technology and expects to release it in late 2017 for aerospace and defense, among other industrial applications.
In addition to materials selection, business model differentiation keeps these companies from competing directly for customers in key industries such as aerospace, automotive, oil and gas, and consumer packaged goods:
- Continuous Composites looks to license its patented process, IP portfolio, materials, printers, and software through industry partnerships
- Markforged sells printers and materials while providing hardware and software support
- Arevo helps design and manufacture parts as a service provider with its custom software and hardware capabilities targeting high volume production parts
The licensing and service provider business models are more fitting to Continuous Composites and Arevo, respectively, because their technologies have many degrees of freedom and require technical expertise to implement successfully. Markforged has focused on making its fiber-reinforced composite printing technology accessible and dependable to provide performance beyond traditional fused filament fabrication systems. Although Markforged leads the fiber-reinforced composite 3D printing technology space in terms of business execution, certain aspects such as interlaminar shear strength between printed layers and limited fiber inclusion by part weight remain to be fully addressed. Despite this, Markforged’s early success in this unique part of the additive manufacturing technology landscape is an indicator of things to come for Continuous Composites and Arevo, and increases awareness towards 3D printed continuous fiber-reinforced composites. The high technology scores of Continuous Composites and Arevo relative to their maturity and business execution indicate the technology’s core strength and promise in creating functional and high-performance composites that ultimately compete with metals and conventional manufacturing technologies across industries. The question to answer now is how to take advantage of a growing technology space determined to bring performance materials and automation together in a cost-competitive package.
By: Dayton Horvath
The idea of a solar-powered car has drawn another attempt from an optimistic manufacturer. Toyota has announced an optional 180 W Panasonic HIT (heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer) module for the roof of its plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the 2017 Prius Prime. This comes as Toyota’s second attempt; the 2010 Prius infamously could not connect its rooftop panels to the drive battery without strangely broadcasting radio signals, so the 50W panel only powered a fan to cool the interior. With more than triple the original wattage and new optimism from Toyota, the new module is intended to charge the drive battery and power unspecified car accessories. Toyota estimates that the module will add about 3.7 miles daily to the PHEV’s current range (25 miles electric, 615 miles gasoline). Continue reading
February 2017 had two noteworthy announcements pertaining to lignin-based materials: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland announced the development of a reactive lignin product to replace phenol in phenol formaldehyde adhesives and the Institute of Textile Chemistry and Chemical Fibers (ITCF) Denkendorf announced its participation in the “LIBRE Project” (Lignin Based Carbon Fibers for Composites). However, lignin’s successful use in materials has faced challenges including processing, derivatization, lignin’s unpleasant odor and dark colors, and questionable cost and performance benefits ([see the report “Assessing Lignin-based Material Innovations“] client registration required). As such, we have given Lux Takes based on the probability of these announcements for overcoming these issues: Continue reading
Stanford University researchers have published a new study in Energy & Environmental Sciences that applies artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to accelerate the development of advanced batteries. Specifically, they looked to improve solid-state battery electrolytes, which are a very promising class of materials that could potentially improve the safety, performance, and cost of energy storage, affecting important applications like plug-in vehicles. While this initial Stanford study did not physically result in better batteries yet, it does present an early and important case study in how AI will impact how science will be done in the future, and how it can accelerate progress on open problems like next-generation battery development. Continue reading
SolidWorks, a supplier of computer aided design (CAD), computer aided engineering (CAE), and other manufacturing and design software, recently announced that in 2017, it will integrate currently separate software suites to provide a “fully digitized design to manufacturing ecosystem.” Currently, part designers using CAD software need to design a part capable of performing its function while making sure the part is manufacturable given manufacturing equipment availability, configurations, and limitations. The software can currently perform certain sanity checks based on established Design for Manufacturing (DFM) rules, but Dassault Systemes (SolidWorks’ parent company) CEO Gian Paolo Bassi reported that in 2017 the company plans to go much further in allowing the software to make and optimize such decisions. In particular, SolidWorks plans for its software to keep track of what kinds of manufacturing equipment a given user has available, along with the capabilities and limits of that equipment, and even parts that are available off-the-shelf commercially, in order to determine whether a given design can be reliably made in a given manufacturing environment. The company plans to let the designer input the performance parameters for the part, which will allow the software to modify designs to make them manufacturable. Once a design is finalized, the same software will be able to configure equipment to manufacture the part. The goal is to make the design and manufacturing process as seamless as possible by identifying and fixing potential problems earlier in the design process, and to notice issues human engineers miss. Continue reading
Lux recently spoke to Trana Discovery (client registration required) CEO Steve Peterson about the company’s research partnership with the Crop Science Division of Bayer. The partnership was announced in February, with the stated intention of discovering novel fungicides for agricultural pathogens. Trana will use its platform to screen for fungicide candidates, and pass those candidates to Bayer for testing in fungi. Trana’s approach is to use information about an organism’s gene expression machinery to uniquely and specifically target pathogens including viruses, fungi, and bacteria. Its platform is species-agnostic, though the company’s initial development work was in pursuit of treatments for HIV, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) in humans. The partnership leverages Trana’s screening platform to generate candidate fungicide chemistries with more agility than Bayer could do on its own. Continue reading